The first rule - Roman numerals set of basic symbols

Roman numerals set of basic symbols:

  • A. The major numerals, the symbols that were used to build the rest of the numbers in the Roman numeral system:
  • I = 1 (one);
  • V = 5 (five);
  • X = 10 (ten);
  • L = 50 (fifty);
  • C = 100 (one hundred);
  • D = 500 (five hundred);
  • M = 1,000 (one thousand).
  • At the beginning, Romans did not use numbers larger than 3,999, having no representation for larger numbers such as: 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 or 1,000,000. These numbers were added later on and for them various different notations were used.
  • Thus, initially, the largest number that was written with Roman numerals was: MMMCMXCIX (3,999).
  • B. The numerals below were a later addition to the Roman numeral system; these numerals were also written with an overline or between two vertical lines, to indicate multiplication by 1,000. We prefer writing them between brackets instead because 1) it's more accessible to computer users when compared to the overline and 2) it avoids any possible confusion between vertical lines and the symbol for one - I.
  • V or |V| or (V) = 5,000 (five thousand);
  • X or |X| or (X) = 10,000 (ten thousand);
  • L or |L| or (L) = 50,000 (fifty thousand);
  • C or |C| or (C) = 100,000 (one hundred thousand);
  • D or |D| or (D) = 500,000 (five hundred thousand);
  • M or |M| or (M) = 1,000,000 (one million).

Roman numerals reading rules, summary:

I. The first rule - Roman numerals set of basic symbols

II. The second rule - numerals repetition

III. The third rule - subtractive notation of the Roman numerals

IV. The fourth rule - additive notation of the Roman numerals


How to convert Arabic numbers to Roman numerals: breaking down into place value subgroups

Examples of converting Arabic numbers to Roman numerals


Roman numerals from 1 to 100

Roman numerals from 1 to 1000

Mathematical operations with Roman numerals:

I. Addition. Learn by example how to add Roman numerals the right way, like the Romans calculated, steps, explanations

II. Subtraction. Learn by example how to subtract Roman numerals the right way, like the Romans calculated, steps, explanations

III. Addition and subtraction. Learn by example how to add and subtract Roman numerals the right way, like the Romans calculated, steps, explanations