XII - DXXI + CMXCII + MDCLXIV + LXI = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DCCCLXXXV - MCDLXVII + MMCCCLXIX + MMCDXCI = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

MCCCLXXVII - CCXIV - CMXVII + XCIX - MCDV = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

CCLIX + DCXIX - DCCCLVII - LXXXI - CDXXXIII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DCXV - CCLXVI - DCCXXVIII - XLII + XXVI = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DXXI - DCLXXIII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

CLXXIX - CCCXLIV - CDLXVI + MLXXXVI = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DLXXVIII - CDLXX + CCLXXXVIII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DCCCXXXII - MCXCV = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

CLXXI - DII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

DCXXIX + LXXVI + XX - CXXXV - CMIX = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

XXXVIII - DCCXXIII - MXXVIII + CCLXIII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

CCXXXIV - MCV - MCXXXVIII + CCCLIII + MCCLVII = ? | Jun 18 14:47 UTC (GMT) |

All the Roman numerals calculations: what our visitors added or subtracted, online operations... |

- Let's learn by an example:
#### XC + MCMLIII + CCXIX - MCCXLVIII - XC = ?

- 90 + 1.953 + 219 - 1.248 - 90 = ? The Romans did not have the Hindu-Arabic numbers

- Matching numerals / symbols are colored the same.
- XC + MCMLIII + CCXIX - MCCXLVIII - XC = MCMLIII + CCXIX - MCCXLVIII;

- Matching numerals / symbols are colored the same.
- MCMLIII + CCXIX - MCCXLVIII = CML + XIX - XLV;

do not mix subtractive and additive groups symbols.

- For example, the numerals XI and IV:
- XI is an additive group - largest symbol on the left, down to the smallest on the right - to calculate the value add up the symbols: XI = X + I = 10 + 1 = 11;
- IV is a subtractive group - a smaller symbol precedes a larger one - to calculate the value subtract the first symbol from the second: IV = V - I = 5 - 1 = 4.
- When subtracting the two numerals, XI - IV = (uncompact the subtractive) XI - IIII = X - III = VIIIII - III = VII (= 7), CORRECT. But if you cross out the common symbol regardless of the fact that it is part of a subtractive group: XI - IV = X - V = VV - V = V (= 5), WRONG.

- Subtractive notation = a group of two numerals, one of a lower value preceding another larger one, the only allowed ones are: IV, IX, XL, XC, CD, CM, M(V), M(X), (X)(L), (X)(C), (C)(D), (C)(M) - to calculate the value subtract the first symbol from the second.
- Additive notation = a group of two or more numerals, equal or sorted in descending order from high to low, largest symbol on the left, down to the smallest on the right - to calculate the value add up the symbols.
- CML: CM = M - C = D CCCCC - C = D CCCC = DCCCC; CML = DCCCCL;
- XIX: IX = X - I = V IIIII - I = V IIII = VIIII; XIX = XVIIII;
- XLV: XL = L - X = XXXXX - X = XXXX; XLV = XXXXV;

- Catenate the positive numerals together.
- DCCCCL + XVIIII = DCCCCLXVIIII;

- DCCCCLXVIIII - XXXXV = DCCCCLIIII - XXX;

- Symbols converted, in additive notation: L = XXXXX;
- DCCCCLIIII - XXX = DCCCCXXXXXIIII - XXX = DCCCCXXIIII;

- The numeral C should not repeat itself more than 3 times in a row, rewrite:
- DCCCCXXIIII = CMXXIIII;
- The numeral I should not repeat itself more than 3 times in a row, rewrite:
- CMXXIIII = CMXXIV

#### XC + MCMLIII + CCXIX - MCCXLVIII - XC = CMXXIV;

- 90 + 1,953 + 219 - 1,248 - 90 = 924 The Romans did not have the Hindu-Arabic numbers